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Planting kiwi fruit skills, master the frame, plastic methods, improve the quality and growth

Publish Time: 2023-01-09 Views: 6

In order to improve the yield of kiwi fruit, we need to pay attention to the key technologies such as fertilizing soil, planting, erecting and shaping, fertilization and irrigation, harvesting and so on.

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1.Deep ploughing and soil preparation

In order to ensure the quality of fresh kiwi fruit, it is necessary to dig deep to improve the soil, fertilize the foot and fertilize the soil before landscape construction. According to the design of 4 meters row spacing, the North-South directional planting ditch was dug, 100 cm wide and 60 cm deep. The topsoil and subsoil were separated, and they were on one side of the ditch. A layer of broken straw (corn, wheat straw, weeds, etc.) is scattered at the bottom of the ditch.

The application rate is 800-1000kg / mu, and the topsoil backfill is 25-30cm. Then, 3000kg of decomposed cattle and sheep manure, farm manure and other organic fertilizers, 50-100kg of calcium magnesium phosphate, 30-60kg of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers were mixed with the soil, and the planting ditch was well filled and watered.

2. Colonization

1.Seedling treatment

Select high-quality seedlings with complete roots, 3-5 main roots, no scratches on branches, disease removal and rooting. In order to ensure the quality and purity of seedlings, it is better to raise seedlings by ourselves or entrust a fruit tree seedling company to raise seedlings regularly.

If conditions permit, virus-free seedlings can be planted. After sprouting in spring or falling leaves in autumn. Before transplanting, rhizobia and root knot nematodes were detected to cut off the damaged roots. Soak the roots with low toxic insecticides, fungicides and rooting powder for 5-10 minutes to control diseases and pests and improve the survival rate.

2.Pollination tree configuration

The male plants should be arranged as pollination trees, and the male plants should choose the plants with more flowers and pollen. The density of male plant determines the amount of pollen and natural pollination rate, and affects the development and quality of fruit. The planting ratio of mother tree and male tree should be (6 ~ 8): 1.

3.Planting density

The planting density of kiwi fruit depends on the tree strength, and the plant spacing of weak varieties is (2-3) M × 3 m, 74-110 plants per mu; The stronger variety is 3M ×( 3-5) m, 44-74 plants per mu.

The roots of the seedlings are put into the hole and covered with fine soil. The planting depth is about the same or slightly deeper than 5cm. After planting, water should be supplied once, and plastic film or straw curtain should be put on the back cover to keep the temperature and water, so as to improve the survival rate of seedlings and promote the growth of seedlings.

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3. Erecting and shaping

Along the tree line every 6 meters buried a cement pole, pole size of 12 cm × 12 cm × 250 cm, buried depth 50-60 cm. The grounding head pole is embedded in 110-120 ° The frame rod is arranged vertically and horizontally. 1 galvanized anti rust steel wire is pulled vertically and horizontally at the top of the pole to fix the top.

The two ends of each wire are at 45 ° of the rod ° The angle is pulled down and the ground is fixed. Then pull a wire every 80 cm along the planting line between the two poles, and fix one end of the ground. The tree shape is single stem double arm type or single stem multi main tendril type.

The grafted seedlings germinated in the first year, and a strong branch was selected for culture. The new shoots were tied to the surface of the frame along the bamboo pole and removed from 10-15cm to promote the growth of the second branch. Two strong new shoots were selected as the main vines and tied in the center of the grid, which extended to the opposite direction respectively.

In the next year, a bearing branch was reserved every 30 cm on both sides of the main vine, and vertically arranged on the scaffold surface, and it was arranged in feather shape. The main pruning method is long branch pruning, 2 branches per square meter are left, and 3-4 new branches can be selected for single stem and multi main vine.

In the second year, the fruity mother branches were cultivated on the selected main vines, which were fan-shaped and covered on the surface. The long and short branches were pruned and combined to update and update the strong parent branches.

4.Scientific fertilization

After harvest, apply basic fertilizer, 3000-5000 kg of farmyard fertilizer per mu, and 50 kg of ternary compound fertilizer. Dig ditch or ring ditch, apply soil and fertilizer deeply. Before germination, one week after flowering and late July, 50-75kg of N, P and K compound fertilizer was applied.

The proportion of N fertilizer was higher before germination, which promoted the growth of robust branches, and the proportion of P and K fertilizer increased at the later stage, which promoted the fruit expansion, dry matter transformation and accumulation, and improved the fruit quality. In the dry season of the north, fertilization and irrigation. If it is dry in autumn, it should be irrigated in time.

The effect of micro irrigation or drip irrigation is the best, and it is better to establish water and fertilizer integration facilities in the park where conditions permit. In order to promote tree health and improve fruit quality, foliar fertilizers such as Bihu, 0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate or amino acid foliar fertilizer and biogas slurry can be sprayed 3-4 times after 6 months.

5. Irrigation

In order to keep the water supply, Actinidia should be irrigated before flowering, so as not to affect the rule of flowering. Two months after fruiting in the middle of May, the fruit expanded rapidly, and the branches and leaves were at the peak.

If there is no water for the fruit, it should be irrigated every 7 days or so. Irrigation should be stopped about 10 days before harvest to prepare for harvest and storage, so as not to affect storage time and fruit quality. In winter, kiwifruit needs less water during dormancy period, but its root water content and water storage capacity are stronger.

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6.Harvesting method

The orchard does not need to be sprayed with any insecticide, fertilizer or other chemicals 30 days before harvest, and it does not need to be watered 15 days before harvest. Harvest on a calm, sunny day, preferably before 10am, when the temperature doesn't rise.

Don't harvest after the rain or in the morning when the dew is still wet. The fruit basket is lined with soft material to avoid injury. When picking, handle with care to avoid pulling the fruit pedicle and scratching the skin. Handle with care to avoid squeezing.

Kiwi fruit is tender and sweet, beautiful in appearance, rich in nutritional value, and has certain medicinal value, which is widely loved and welcomed by the people.

In this paper, it is found that scientific fertilization and irrigation can accelerate the growth of kiwi fruit and improve its quality. In the process of cultivation, we also need to do a good job in harvesting, to provide a reference for farmers to increase yield and efficiency of kiwi fruit.